Glass is a see-through, tough and chemically immobile material which can be formed and casted with a smooth, impermeable surface. Because of these attributes, glass has presented many uses. It is made when a sticky, melted material cools down very quickly so that it will not have sufficient time for a normal crystal framework to develop.
One of its most significant attributes is the fact that it is translucent to visible light. This translucence is accredited to its lack of atomic line transition with the perceptible light’s energy in the item that composes the glass. The majority of standard glass are composed of other ingredients which are supplemented to change its structure.
To change glass’s electrical and thermal properties, the material boron is added. Likewise, adding barium to the item will maximize its refractive index, while cerium is employed to make glass take in infrared energy.
Obsidian, which is a natural glass, has been used by people since the Stone Age. The first recognized glassmaking procedure happened in Egypt approximately 2000 BC and it was employed as a type of glaze for pottery, containers, and other objects.
But where did glassblowing originate then? In the first century BC, this particular method was progressed and glass, in turn, became a common item. The Roman Empire, in fact, presented plenty of glass forms that were made especially for use in bottles and vases.
It was only in the 12th century that stained glass was created and then used for decorative purposes.
Venice became the hub of glass making at the beginning of the 14th century because the glass artisans there honed and developed many new methods to create and shape glass. By that time, the place was exporting mirrors, dinnerware and other kinds of luxury objects.
Ultimately, several Venetian glass artists relocated to other parts of Northern Europe and took their glassmaking methods with them.
The Crown glass process, meanwhile, was employed up until the middle of the 1800s. In this method, the glass artist would revolve approximately 9 pounds of molten glass at the end of a single rod until it is compressed into a disc which measures roughly 5 feet in diameter.
The disc would then be reduced to pieces. Venetian glass was highly coveted between the 10th and 14th centuries because glass artists kept their methods secret. By 1688, the procedure for shaping glass advanced which resulted in it being a more frequently employed material.
In 1827, the glass pressing machine was then invented and this made the mass manufacture of affordable glass items possible.
The float-glass procedure was then invented and this process involves molten glass being dispensed onto molten lead as it hardens, making it possible to make bigger sheets of flat glass in a more cost-effective manner with greater quality compared to earlier procedures in which the glass was forwarded throughout rollers.
There are many standard glass wares these days but you will still see hand-blown pieces from acclaimed glass artists like Sidney Waugh, René Lalique, and Louis Comfort Tiffany. These artists made exquisite glass art pieces that are highly recognized today.
Crystal glass originated from rock crystal and has come to signify top-quality colorless glass. Crystal glass often contains lead and is, at times, applied to any excellent hand-blown glass.
Toughened glass is hardwearing but it can be breakable. Glass items meant to endure quick temperature changes and forceful handling are at times fortified by fast and restricted cooling of their surfaces over the course of the building procedure, a process called tempering.
This pre-strains the item and it minimizes its propensity to break at the surface when pressured. Once tempered glass breaks, it shatters into round granules that are not as risky as shards of common glass.
Bigger sheets of glass can cause serious damage once it gets broken since they are prone to forming shards with ultra-sharp edges. This danger is undesirable on glass products such as shop windows and vehicle windscreens. This danger can be minimized by laminating the material with layers of plastic material.
Laminated glass is apt to contain itself together once it breaks. The shards connect to the flexible layers of plastic where they are less possible to cause harm to individuals and animals. Bigger sheets of glass will be both laminated and fortified. The laminate can be applied inside the body of the item or applied to its exteriors.
Glass has plenty of uses and age-old techniques like glassblowing are now considered a favorite hobby by many. If you want to pursue such a hobby or want to become a professional glassmaker, it is not hard to get education and training for such careers at this time.
There are many available courses and workshops dedicated to the craft that will help you hone and perfect your skills.